Journal of Field Ornithology - Instructions for Authors
Journal of Field Ornithology now uses a web-based submission and review system called Manuscript Central. Electronic submission speeds the handling of your manuscript and allows you to monitor its status in the review process at any time. The Manuscript Central web site has been optimized for Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.x and above, Netscape
7.0, 7.1 and 7.2, FireFox 1.0.4, and Safari 1.2.4. You will also need Acrobat Reader and the latest Java plug-in. Please note that the site will not work fully if you have disabled pop-up boxes. Authors without access to a computer with the needed software should contact the editor, Gary Ritchison, by email. Authors are asked to submit one word processing file (preferably MS Word [.DOC], but .RTF and .PS may also be used) with the text, tables, and figure captions. Each figure should be submitted as a separate graphics file (300 pixels resolution as a .tiff [preferred], .eps, or .jpg format). When papers are uploaded onto the server, the system will convert them to .pdf file format for review. Consult the Help areas of Manuscript Central or the editor, Gary Ritchison, if you have problems.
Submitting the manuscript
You will first need to log into the system. Go to http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jofo. If you do not have an account, go to “Create an Account” to enter your user information; fill in at least the mandatory fields. If you have forgotten your password, go to “Check for Existing Account” and your username and password will be e-mailed to you.
Before you begin the submission process, you should also have the following information prepared to either key in or cut and paste into the forms found in the submission system: affiliations of the authors, authors' names, e-mail addresses of authors (if you want them to be copied on the status of the manuscript), manuscript title, keywords (5 – 7), and abstract. You will also be asked to suggest possible reviewers and those potential reviewers you would like to exclude (up to 4 of each are permitted), and provide their names, affiliations, and e-mail addresses. The system also has a form box for entering comments to the editor that will act as your cover letter; if you want to submit a cover letter, please have that copy prepared to paste into the system. The cover letter should include the title of the manuscript, a statement that the manuscript (as a whole or in part) has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere, and the name, phone number, e-mail address, and mailing address for the next nine months of the corresponding author.
After logging in, click on “Author Center,” then on “Submit First Draft of Manuscript.” Complete the information as requested. If you are interrupted during the submission process, it is possible to save what you have completed and finish the submission process at a later time. Once you have uploaded a draft of your manuscript, you will be given the opportunity to view the proof. Please check the proof to ensure that the .pdf file has translated successfully and to review your final manuscript. If you find problems, you may upload new drafts until you are satisfied with the file. Close the proof file. As the final step, you must submit the manuscript.
Once you have successfully uploaded a manuscript, you will receive an e-mail verifying that the manuscript has been submitted with your manuscript number. The editor will immediately receive an e-mail that your manuscript has been submitted. While your paper is in review, you can go to your “Author Center” in Manuscript Central to check on the status of your paper.
Authors are also asked to complete and submit an Exclusive License Form at the time a manuscript is submitted. This form must be submitted before an article can be published.
Manuscripts are published as Feature Articles, Reviews, Commentaries, or Book Reviews. Commentaries are brief papers that comment on articles published previously in the Journal of Field Ornithology. Reviews should cover the latest developments in an area of ornithology and should include an evaluation of available data, not just a compilation. Reviews will normally be published by invitation, but prospective authors are welcome to submit ideas or proposals for possible review papers to the editor. Book Reviews are published in the Recent Literature section of the journal. Interested book reviewers should contact Bridget Stutchbury, Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 Canada (Email).
Prepare manuscripts carefully with attention to all details. Manuscripts that depart from these guidelines will be returned without review.
• Assemble manuscripts in this order: title page, abstract, text (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and Literature Cited), tables, figure legends, and figures (with figures submitted as separate files in Manuscript Central). It is generally inappropriate to combine Results and Discussion. In the Introduction, state the reason for the study, the context, and the objectives or hypotheses being tested. The Methods section should include sufficient details for the study to be repeated, and should contain a subsection describing the statistical tests and procedures used. Cite statistical software (e.g., SAS) and any other analysis programs here and in the Literature Cited. In the Discussion, explain the importance of the results and place them in the context of previous studies.
• Manuscripts should be double-spaced throughout (including the title page, tables, and figure legends); use the same font (no smaller than 12 point) throughout the manuscript.
• Text lines should be numbered starting with the Abstract and continuing through Acknowledgments.
• Margins should be at least 2.5 cm (1 in) on all sides of the page.
• Place the first author's last name and the page number (starting with the abstract on page 2 and continuing through the Literature Cited) in the upper right corner of each page.
• Write in the active voice and use U.S. English and spelling throughout the manuscript, except for foreign literature citations.
• Table and figure citations should be in numerical order, e.g., do not cite Fig. 2 before the first citation to Fig. 1.
Authors should use recent issues of the Journal as a guide in preparing their manuscripts.
Title page. -- In the upper left corner, provide the author's name (e.g., R. T. Smith; R. T. Smith and P. R. Jones; or E. F. Hunt et al.) as a left running head and, below this, a short title (of not more than 50 characters, including spaces) as a right running head. In the upper right, provide the name and address of the author to receive proofs. Centered below these, provide the full title (double-spaced) and the name of all authors and their addresses at the time the research was conducted. Each author's current address, if different, should be given as a numbered footnote at the bottom of the title page. The corresponding author should be indicated by providing his/her email address in a footnote. Use a recent issue of the Journal for correct formatting and style of author and address listings.
Abstract. -- The second page should be an abstract that does not exceed 5% of the length of the paper. The abstract should explain the purpose of the study, describe the principal findings, and state the main conclusions. Many readers rely heavily on the abstract so it should be as informative as possible. Avoid uninformative sentences such as "The significance of these results is discussed. Below the Abstract, provide 5-7 key words or phrases (in alphabetical order) that describe the subject of the paper; these need not duplicate words in the title. The Spanish title and abstract will be prepared for all articles accepted for publication.
Text. -- Begin the text (Introduction) on page 3. Do not include a heading (i.e., simply begin the text of the Introduction; do not include the heading ‘Introduction’).
• English and scientific names of a species should be given the first time it is mentioned in the text. Scientific names should be in italics. Bird names should follow the AOU Check-list of North American Birds (1998) and supplements or the appropriate equivalent unless departures are explained and defined. The first letter of common names of bird species should be capitalized.
• Use metric units.
• Do not insert either a comma or a space in numbers less than 10 000 (e.g., 1232 swallows). For numbers greater than 9999, separate the hundreds and thousands places using a space, e.g., 22 432 Broad-winged Hawks.
• Use these unit abbreviations: second, sec; minute, min; hour, hr; month, mo; week, wk; year, yr.
• Use the 24-hour clock (e.g., 05:00 and 17:00) and "continental" dating (10 March 1992).
• Define all symbols, abbreviations, and acronyms but minimize their use.
• Test statistics and degrees of freedom should be given with all P-values. P-values should be written as P = 0.025. Give exact values even for non-significant results (P = 0.67 rather than P > 0.05 or NS). Statistical tests should be clearly specified, and degrees of freedom provided as a subscript to the test statistic (e.g., F3,12).
• Italicize the following: N (sample size), P (probability), t (t-test), F (F-ratio), U (Mann-Whitney U-test), r (simple correlation coefficient; Pearson r), z (Wilcoxon test), rs (Spearman rank-order correlation), R (multiple regression coefficient), and G (G-test).
• Use ‘Figure’ only to start a sentence; otherwise use ‘Fig.’ (or ‘Figs.’ if plural).
• Write out numbers one to nine unless referring to a measurement (e.g., five species, 5 km, or 5 min).
• Use % rather than percent.
Acknowledgments. -- Institutional affiliations are not allowed for persons thanked in Acknowledgments.
Literature Cited. -- List literature citations alphabetically by the first author's last name.
• Literature Cited entries (in a style conforming to that in the latest issue of the Journal) should be carefully double-checked against citations in the text.
• For authors names, use large and small capital letters (i.e., small caps; see examples below).
• Journal and publisher names should be spelled out in their entirety.
• Text citations should be in the author-year format (LeConte 1995, Edwards and Sutton 1994, 1996, Klatt et al. 1997, Frydendall 1995a, b). Do not use commas between author and year; do use a comma between different citations by the same or different authors. When citing several references within parentheses, list in chronological order with the oldest first. If you cite or quote critical material directly from longer works, indicate the pertinent pages (e.g., Smith 1994:23-24).
• Unpublished papers should not be cited. Also, do not cite manuscripts that are in preparation or review and avoid citation of "gray" literature such as technical reports by governmental agencies that may be difficult for other researchers to find. Articles that have been accepted for publication can be cited using the digital object identifier (doi) if the volume and page numbers are not yet known.
• Regularly published serial publications containing chapters by multiple authors, such as Current Ornithology, Farner and King's Avian Biology, and Studies in Avian Biology should be cited as journal articles. Accounts from the Birds of North America series should be cited using the style for book chapters.
• Cite Internet resources only if they are important, reasonably permanent, and not readily available in print. Include the date you last accessed the website and use the following format:
BORDERS, L. B. [online]. 2004. The Breeding Bird Survey database project. <http://www.bbs.gov/borders/bbs.html> (29 October 2003).
Examples of other citation styles:
HOOGLAND, J. L., AND P. W. SHERMAN. 1976. Advantages and disadvantages of Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia) coloniality. Ecological Monographs 46:33–58.
SHARPE, R. S., W. R. SILCOCK, AND J. G. JORGENSEN. 2001. Birds of Nebraska: their distribution and temporal occurrence. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE.
ROGERS, C. A., R. J. ROBERTSON, AND B. J. STUTCHBURY. 1991. Patterns and effects of parasitism by Protocalliphora sialia on Tree Swallow nestlings. In: Bird-parasite interactions: ecology, evolution and behaviour (J. E. Loye and M. Zuk, eds.), pp. 123–139. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Thesis or Dissertation
BROWN, C. R. 1985. The costs and benefits of coloniality in the Cliff Swallow. Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.
Tables. -- Each table should be double-spaced throughout on a separate page. Place the tables after the Literature Cited. Tables should be numbered sequentially and include a concise and informative title. Do not use additional sentences after the Table's title; material necessary to clarify the table should be presented as footnotes to the table. Tables should supplement, not duplicate, material in the text or figures. Tables should be understandable without reference to the text. Do not use vertical lines in the table; use horizontal lines for the main heading and the end of the table, but not in the body of the table.
Figures. -- Figures should be uncluttered, but convey a maximum amount of information; they should not duplicate material in the text or tables.
• When preparing figures use a sans serif font (e.g. Helvetica, Arial) with capitals used for the initial letter of the first word only. Bold lettering should not be used. Details and text should be large enough to allow for reduction.
• Units of axes should appear in parentheses after the axis name.
• Do not use three-dimensional graphs or odd fills. The best shadings are black, white, and crosshatching, and the best point symbols are circles, squares, and triangles. Keys and other explanations should be included either in the figure legend or, better, on the figure itself.
• Illustrations should be submitted either as original artwork/photographs or digital images. Hardcopies must be no larger than 21 × 28 cm (8.5 × 11 inches). Photographs must be sharp monochrome and of good contrast.
• For digital images, please save line artwork (vector graphics) as Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) and bitmap files (halftones or photographic images) as Tagged Image Format (TIFF), with a resolution of at least 300 dpi at final size. Do not send native file formats. More detailed information on the submission of electronic artwork can be found here.
• Each hardcopy figure or illustration should have the authors’ names and figure number (e.g., Fig. 1) written lightly in pencil (not pen) either in a corner or on the back.
• Original drawings should be large enough to permit reduction to the size they will appear in print.
• Type (double-spaced) figure legends consecutively on one page.
• Authors are encouraged to follow the suggestions of Kroodsma (2000, Auk 117:1081–1083) in preparing figure legends and titles of tables, with the main point of the figure or table clearly indicated in the legend or title.
• Figures and tables should be designed to convey information when standing alone; extensive cross-referencing of them to the text (e.g., "see Methods") is unacceptable.
Spanish Translation. -- The editorial staff will prepare a Spanish title and abstract for all articles accepted for publication. Authors are welcome to submit suggested Spanish translations.
Publication Date. -– For manuscripts accepted for publication in Journal of Field Ornithology, the editor will inform authors of the anticipated publication date. Prior to publication, authors will receive page proofs and, at that point, have an opportunity to review their papers and make necessary corrections. Changes to the article cannot be made after the article has been published.
Author Material Archive Policy. -- Please note that unless specifically requested, Blackwell Publishing will dispose of all submitted hardcopy or electronic material two issues after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the Editorial Office or Production Editor as soon as possible.
© 2009 Association of Field Ornithologists. Banner photo of Gray Catbird by Charles Eiseman.